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There are three principle muscles which comprise the muscular layer of the pharynx. They are the (Figure 31.2):
These muscles attach anterolaterally to the skull, hyoid bone or laryngeal cartilages, and insert posteriorly into a fibrous median septum, called the pharyngeal raphe. The raphe is located in the midline on the posterior wall of the pharynx and attaches superiorly to the pharyngeal tubercle of the occipital bone. The three constrictor muscles "fit" together like three stacked cups.
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