To study the internal structure of a kidney, make a longitudinal incision through the entire length of a kidney from the lateral border towards the hilum of the kidney . On the cut surface of the kidney, identify the following:
The rounded renal papilla is located at the apex of each pyramid and contains the excretory ducts which empty into a minor calyx. A number of minor calyxes converge to form three or four major calyxes, which join to form the renal pelvis within the renal sinus. Open the renal pelvis with scissors and follow it distally to the ureter (Figure 40.3).
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