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Now, examine the bean-shaped kidneys located in the retroperitoneal space. In general the upper pole of the kidney is located near the level of the T12 vertebra and the lower pole near the L3 vertebra. The right kidney is usually slightly (half of a vertebra) lower than the left kidney. Identify the ureters . These 25 to 35 cm long, narrow, muscular tubes begin in the renal sinus as a continuation of the renal pelvis on the medial border of the kidney. At this time, do not cut the vessels or renal pelvis. The renal vessels and renal pelvis enter the kidney by passing through the hilum.
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