Identify the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) that lies inferior to the lingual nerve. The hypoglossal nerve passes lateral to the hyoglossus muscle. The hypoglossal nerve innervates all the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue, except the palatoglossus muscle. The palatoglossus muscle is innervated by the cranial root of the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) via pharyngeal branches of the vagus nerve (CN X).
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