Examine and remove the mucosa that line the nasal septum. It is difficult to identify specific vessels and nerves located within the mucous membrane. The nerves of this area include branches of the olfactory nerve (CN I), branches of the ophthalmic nerve (V1), and branches of the maxillary nerve (V2). The nasopalatine nerve, a branch of the maxillary nerve, can be identified usually as it passes obliquely across the septum towards the incisive foramen.
The vessels of the nasal septum arise from sources, including the facial artery, maxillary artery, anterior ethmoidal artery (a branch of the ophthalmic artery), and a terminal branch of the greater palatine artery which reaches the nasal septum via the incisive canal. These vessels collectively create an important anastomosis which is a frequent site of nose bleeds (epistaxis).
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