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Laboratory 16. The Foot
Step 8. Fourth Layer of Muscles of the Sole of the Foot

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Cut the transverse head of adductor hallucis muscle [probe] near its origin and reflect it towards its insertion. Now, identify the seven interosseous muscles which make up the fourth muscle layer of the sole of the foot.

The interosseous muscles are located between the metacarpal bones and are organized in two groups, i.e. plantar and dorsal interosseous muscles. There are four dorsal interosseous muscles which abduct the digits. There are three plantar interosseous muscles which adduct the digits. The plane of the second toe is the reference plane for the movements of adduction and abduction of the toes.

Links and References:
Grant's: 5.113
Netter (1ed.): 504 (2ed.): 500
Rohen/Yokochi: 439 and 472