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Deep to the attachment of the abductor hallucis muscle to the calcaneus, locate the tibial nerve and posterior tibial vessels. Distally, they divide into medial plantar nerve and vessels [tip of the probe] and lateral plantar nerve and vessels [probe; forceps hold the abductor hallucis muscle]. The deep branch of the lateral plantar artery joins the deep plantar branch of the dorsalis pedis artery to form the plantar arterial arch. This arch lies deep to the digital tendons of the third muscle layer and cannot be seen at this time. In some instances, the nerves and blood vessels of the sole of the foot may need to be retracted to facilitate study of the remaining layers of muscles of the foot.
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