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Laboratory 1. Muscles of the Back
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The skin and superficial fascia of the back will be reflected to study three groups of back muscles that are organized in layers: superficial, intermediate, and deep. Muscles of the superficial and intermediate groups are called extrinsic back muscles because they are involved in respiration and movements of the upper extremity. Muscles of the deep group are called intrinsic back muscles because they are involved in movement and stabilization of the vertebral column. The superficial and intermediate layers will be reflected to examine the deep muscles of the back.